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Dissertation/ Thesis

These guidelines provide students at National University of Medical Sciences(NUMS) with essential information about how to prepare and submit theses and dissertations in a format acceptable to the Graduate School. The topics range from writing style to the completion of required forms and the payment of fees.All Students should also submit an electronic version of their thesis or dissertation to the NUMS database. Electronic versions, once approved for format by the ORIC-NUMS, are uploaded to the NUMS database of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD). Written manuscript should be submitted to ORIC –NUMS for approval and plagiarism check before proceeding for the final thesis defense.

Guidelines for dissertation writing:

Following are the guidelines for format and structure of thesis. All NUMS enrolled candidates have to abide by all rules and regulations mention in this section for their thesis approval and final proceedings towards thesis defense.

FORMAT:

Length The normal length of a thesis, inclusive of notes, bibliography and appendices, has been determined as: For all the faculties of medical sciences, the Doctoral Dissertation should not exceed 100,000 words; For M.Phil, the thesis should not exceed 80,000 words;Master thesis should not exceed 50,000 words.

Language English must be used unless special permission for an alternative language has been granted by the Dean of Postgraduate Studies.

Font All text should be printed in Times New Roman and should be 12-point with the headings of 14-point. All headings should be bold and capitalize. For footnotes, figures, captions, tables, charts, and graphs, a font size of 10-point is to be used.

Layout and Paper Printed double-sided on white A4 paper.

Marginsshould be set to normal, the inside margin (Binding edge should be 1.5inch) all other margins should be 1inch.

Text should be in a single column and black in color and left-aligned.

SpacingDouble spacing should follow chapter numbers, chapter titles and major section titles (Dedication, Acknowledgements, Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures, List of Abbreviations, Appendices, and References). Double spacing should also occur before each firstlevel and second-level heading, and before and after tables and figures embedded in the text. There should only be one blank space after headings.One and a half spacing between lines, including appendices and bibliography, but excluding quotations, footnotes or captions, which may be single-spaced. Main text should also be single spaced.  A blank page should be left after the title page and after the acknowledgements.For quotations, words in a foreign language, occasional emphasis, book titles, captions, and footnotes, you may use italics.

Pagination sequenceNumber pages consecutively throughout the thesis from the Introduction, including all pages whether textual or otherwise (excluding title page)The pagination sequence will include not only the text of the thesis but also the preliminary pages, diagrams, tables, figures, illustrations, appendices, references etc. (For multi-volume theses a single sequence of numbers should be used). Page numbers should be Arabic numerals, i.e. 1, 2, 3. Numbers should be located centrally at the bottom of the page. Preliminary pages (e.g. Contents, dedications, list of figures, tables, abbreviations, symbols, illustrations, photographs, preface and acknowledgements) should be numbered using lower case Roman numerals, i.e. i, ii, iii.

Chapter Headings and Sub Headings Begin new chapters on a fresh page. Chapter headings should be in Title case, center of the page, bold 14-point font, preceded by “Chapter” and the appropriate number.

Header and footerit should be adjusted as ¾ of an inch from the edge of the page.

Figures, Tables, Charts, and Graphs may be presented horizontally or vertically and must fit within the required margins. Labels or symbols are preferred rather than colors for identifying lines on a graph. Colored graphs and pictures can be used as per need.Material should be scanned or provided in copyright-cleared, high quality digital format of at least 300dpi. Figures and Tables should be Numbered consecutively either throughout the thesis (Table 1, Figure 2) or within individual chapters (Table 1.2, Figure 2.3), but not within sections or sub sections; Refer to figures/tables within the text as table 1, figure 2, etc; Numbers and captions should appear at the bottom of the table/figure; The top of tables/figures printed sideways should align to the left of the page.

Acronyms/Abbreviations/Capitalization Abbreviations on the title page should appear as they do in the body of the thesis or dissertation. Examples: Xenopus laevis, Ca, Mg, Pb, Zn; TGF-β, p53. Capitalize only the first letter of words of importance, distinction, or emphasis in titles and headings. Do not alter the all-cap style used for acronyms (Example: AIDS) and organizational names (Example: IBM). Use the conventional style for Latin words (Examples: in vitro, in vivo, in situ). Genus and species should be italicized. Capitalize the first letter of the Genus, but not that of the Species name (Example: Streptococcus aureus).

Organization of the parts or articles into chapters is recommended. Each “chapter” may contain its own list of references and appendices.Print on one side of the page only.

 

PRELIMINARY PAGES

Title Page (required) Copyright (optional, Ph.D. only) Dedication (optional) Acknowledgment (optional) Preface (optional) Table of Contents (required) List of Tables (required) List of Figures (required) List of Abbreviations/Nomenclature/Symbols (optional) References (required) Appendices (optional)

STRUCTURE:

The main structure of thesis/dissertation should contain the following:

  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgements/Dedications
  • Contents page(s)
  • Introduction/Literature review
  • Materials and methods 
  • Results/ Findings
  • Discussion 
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendices

Title pageThe title itself is an important opportunity to tell the potential reader what your research is about. You will need it to be succinct, specific, descriptive, and representative of the research you have done. This page includes the full title of the thesis and any subtitle as approved by the Dean of Postgraduate Studies; The total number of volumes (if there is more than one), and the number of the particular volume; Your full name; The qualification for which the thesis is submitted, e.g. Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated), Master of philosophy; The name of the College or Institute in which the research was conducted; The month and year of submission.

AbstractThis may be one of the shortest sections of your thesis or dissertation, but it is worthwhile taking great care to write it well. Essentially, the Abstract is a succinct summary of the research. It should be able to stand alone in representing why and how you did what you did, and what the results and implications are. It should be restricted to 500-700 words maximum for MS/MPhil and 1000-1200 for PhD. Abstract should outline the issues that you have researched and why, Research methods chosen and why, Results obtained, Conclusions drawn.

AcknowledgementsThis is your opportunity to mention and appreciate individuals who have been particularly helpful during your research work and assisted you throughout in all aspects.Acknowledgement of grant and contract support should be included on the acknowledgement page.Dedications will be your choice. If you wish to dedicate your work to your loved ones you have all the rights to do so.In the case of any work done jointly, or in wider collaborations, or under direction, it is important that the extent of your own contribution, and that made by others, is made clear both under acknowledgements and at relevant points within the thesis. Where you have worked as part of a team, please state the name of individual team members and specify their contributions and yours.

Contents, and figure and table listsThe contents pages will show up in sequence the structure of the dissertation (all relevant chapters, sections and subsections; appendices, references and bibliography, and any other supporting material, with the relevant page numbers. Any imbalance in space devoted to different sections of content will become apparent. This is a useful check on whether amalgamation of sections or creation of further sections or sub-sections is needed. If a thesis comprises more than one volume, the Title page, Abstract and Table of Contents of the whole thesis must appear in each volume. Lists of tables, figures, etc. Items should be in the order in which they appear in the text.

IntroductionMain theme of this section is to expand the material summarized in the abstract and to signpost the content of the rest of the dissertation with describing aims and objectives.You should explain the significance and relevance of what you are trying to prove, how you are going to prove it and what methods you will use in the process. The introduction is your opportunity to demonstrate that you have a grasp of the appropriate language, style and grammar required for writing an academic piece of your research work and you can identify a gap where you argue that further research is needed; and explain how you plan to attend to that particular research gap in light of literature review you searched for your work.

Literature review A good literature review is comprehensive, critical, and informative. You should conclude it by identifying your intended contribution to the current literature. You must critically review relevant past research. Listing summaries of articles in chronological order is not appropriate. The purpose of this chapter is to show that you are aware of where your own piece of research fits into the overall context of research in your field and to describe the current state of research in your defined area.

Material and methodsDevelopment and description of your research framework should be explained in this section. This is where you describe the research methods, data collection and data analysis methods that you have chosen and explain why these methods are appropriate for your research. Its content will differ depending on the particular research undertaken. If you used particular equipment, processes, or materials, you will need to be clear and precise in how you describe them for other readers to grasp the complete idea with this research work.

Results Traditionally, you do not discuss the results in this section only you can mention what results you may obtain from the designed study. However, it is a good idea to organize the results logically, for example by first presenting background information like demographics and then continue with in a sequence reflecting the specific objectives. All tables and figure must be numbered and referred to in the text. Table headings go above the table, figure headings go below the figure. That means, you do not explain why a specific number is an outlier, you must describe, display, interpret and evaluate your results.

Discussion Here you discuss the strengths and weaknesses of your reported research. You also discuss the influence of the chosen methods on the results and what methodological problems may have been faced. Finally, you compare your own results with those of other studies to identify whether your study is in accordance or at odds with previous scientific studies. If the latter is the case this warrants special consideration. Then go on to outline the implications of the findings.

ConclusionThis part shouldstart by clearly stating the main finding of the research. This is where you combine all the strands of your argument to give a convincing answer to the question you originally posed. You should be able to justify your conclusion and show how the stages in your reasoning are connected. You should identify any potential future developments for your research topic and if there are any practical implications for management or government policy.

References/bibliographyYour thesis must contain either a bibliography or a reference list according to NUMS framed structure for referencing style mentioned in synopsis section. Failing to cite your sources correctly could result in accusations of plagiarism and the failure of your dissertation. This section needs to be highly structured, and needs to include all of your references. It is important therefore to check that all the references in your reference list are actually referenced within the text and properly numbered within brackets e.g., [4],[6] etc.; and that all the references that appear in the text appear also in the reference list with the same numbers.If a bibliography is supplied it should be arranged in a logical order, for example alphabetically by author within broad topic categories.

AppendicesThis section should include examples of items you have used to gather evidence for your research, such as questionnaires, surveys, letters, illustrative material, statistical tables etc. Similar materials should be included in the same appendix and should be numbered accordingly, e.g. two different questionnaires should be in the same appendix numbered 1a and 1b. 

Off Prints/Extra Copies/Printed Submission

All Ph.D. students need to make 9copies (3 for reviewer panel,2 for externals, 1 for University library, 1 for Exam Branch, 1 for the supervisor, 1 student own copy) of their thesis and 8 copies (3 for reviewer panel, 1 for external, 1 for University library, 1 for Exam Branch, 1 for the supervisor, 1 student own copy) for MS/M.Phil enrolled. Copies must be printed on white, acid-free A4 paper. Paper of good quality and copies in sharp and clear script, free of smudges shall be submitted to University library to preserve the content over time in university library. All enrolled students need to provide University with 2 off prints.

Electronic Format Review

All students need to submit PDF version of their thesis to get approved from NUMS database. Thesis will be checked with ‘’Trinitin’’ for plagiarism before approval. Single blind method will be followed for peer review. However, double blind peer review can also be followed lately.

Publish Work

Published work from the thesis has to be included as appendix (Reprints/ proof / preprint).

Binding

All final theses/dissertations and published work presented for higher degrees must be bound in a permanent form or in a temporary (hard binding will be provided after defense of the thesis) form approved by the thesis evaluation committee; where printed pamphlets or off-prints are submitted in support of a thesis, they must be bound in with the thesis, or bound in such manner as Binderies may advise. Front cover should give title of the thesis, name of the candidate and the name of the Institute/ Department/ Centre/ College through which submitted, in the same order from top to bottom. The lettering may be in boldface and properly spaced.

Their sizes should be: title 24 pt., name of the candidate 18 pt. and the name of the department/ institute/ college/ university 18 pt.

 The color of binding for different degrees is as follows:  Ph.D. Dark Maroon, M.Phil Navy Blue, MSDark green. Spine of the thesis should show "Ph.D thesis" on top across the width of spine, name of the candidate in the middle and the year of submission across the width at the bottom.

 

Format for Title Page

Title of dissertation,

upper/lower case, single-spaced, centered

(One inch from top of page to top of title)

(Spacing will vary depending on length of the title of thesis or dissertation)

By

Your Name

(The following five lines must be included in this exact format)

Dissertation (or Thesis)

Submitted tothe Graduate school of the

National University of Medical Sciences

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

in

Major

Month, Year

*IMPORTANT: The month will be actual GRADUATION semester, not your thesis or defense semester

Approved: (Original signatures of committee members) Date: ____________________________________________________________        _____________________ (Typed member’s full name under each signature line) ____________________________________________________________        _____________________ (Typed member’s full name under each signature line) ____________________________________________________________        _____________________ (Typed member’s full name under each signature line) ____________________________________________________________        _____________________ (Typed member’s full name under each signature line)

____________________________________________________________         ____________________ (Typed member’s full name under each signature line)

 

Sample Title Page

Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance and Pathogenesis in Acinetobacter baumannii

By

Nabeel Ahmed Khan

Dissertation

Submitted to the Graduate School of the

National University of Medical Sciences

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In

 Microbiology and Immunology

August, 2012 Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Approved:                                                                               Date: ___________________________________________________________         ___________________

Farooq A. Lashari, M.D.

____________________________________________________________       ___________________

Ahsan umer Khan, Ph.D.

_________________________________________ ___________________       ___________________

Naheed Bhatti, M.D.

_____________________________________________________________      ___________________

Tauseef Nasir, M.D.

_____________________________________________________________       __________________

Khaid Masood Rehmani, Ph.D.

[do not print page number on title page]

 

 

Sample Copyright Page

 

Copyright © 2016 by NUMS

All Rights Reserved

 

 

 

Sample Dedication Page

 

 To my amazing (children /siblings etc.) ,     (names )                     , wise beyond their years

 and

To my beloved (family/parents,husband etc.)  ,       (names)          , infinitely supportive

 

(you can always choose your own wordings this is only a format to be followed for uniformity of all thesis/dissertation under NUMS )

Begin printing page numbers here, using lower case Roman numerals and continue consecutive Roman numeral numbering throughout the preliminary pages

 

 

Sample Acknowledgement Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 This work would not have been possible without the financial support of the (sponsor name for this work, or institute/also mention your host institute), the (         )Scholarship or the University Medical Center Department of (    ) Sciences. I am especially indebted to (   ), Chairman of the Department of (  ), and (  ), Chief of the Section of (  ), who have been supportive of my career goals and who worked actively to provide me with the protected academic time to pursue those goals.

 I am grateful to all of those with whom I have had the pleasure to work during this and other related projects. Each of the members of my Dissertation Committee has provided me extensive personal and professional guidance and taught me a great deal about both scientific research and life in general. I would especially like to thank (your supervisor), the chairperson of my committee. As my teacher and mentor, he has taught me more than I could ever give him credit for here. He has shown me, by his example, what a good scientist (and person) should be.

Nobody has been more important to me in the pursuit of this project than the members of my family. I would like to thank my parents, whose love and guidance are with me in whatever I pursue. They are the ultimate role models. Most importantly, I wish to thank my loving and supportive wife, ( ), and my wonderful children, (names), who provide unending inspiration.

(you can always choose your own wordings this is only a format/sample to be followed for uniformity of all thesis/dissertation under NUMS )

 

 

Table of Contents Template

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page DEDICATION...............................................................................................................................................iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..............................................................................................................................iv

PREFACE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..v

LIST OF TABLES  ………….........................................................................................................................................................vii

LIST OF FIGURES …………..........................................................................................................................................................ix

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS..............................................................................................................................x

I. Chapter I. Title of Chapter I ......................................................................................................................1

First level heading one (upper/lower case) .................................................................................................1 First level heading two................................................................................................................................. 3

 Second level subheading one (upper/lower case)...................................................................................... 8 Second level subheading two ....................................................................................................................10 First level heading three ............................................................................................................................15 

II. Title of Chapter II ..................................................................................................................................20

 First level heading one (upper/lower case) .............................................................................................20

 Second level subheading one (upper/lower case).....................................................................................23 Second level subheading two ....................................................................................................................25 First level heading two...............................................................................................................................28

First level heading three ...........................................................................................................................30

Appendix A.

Title of First Appendix .........................................................................................................................125 B.

Title of Second Appendix.................................................................................................................. ...137 C.

Title of Third Appendix ...........................................................................................................................143

REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................................149

Sample Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                                                         Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................................................................................................iv

 LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................................................vii

LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..viii

ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................................................................... xiii Chapter

I. Introduction............................................................................................................................................1 liver transplant: Theory and transplant Strategies .......................................................................... ........ 5

Physiological expect of liver disease ……….…............................................................................. .............11 Waiting for liver transplant…………………………. .........................................................................................14

II. Exploration of the lived experience of patients and caregivers ……………………………. ..........................19 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................19 Experimental............................................................................................................................................20 Results and Discussion ............................................................................................................................23 Conclusion................................................................................................................................................35

III. Paradigm , analysis, methodologies ...................................................................................................37 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................37 Experimental............................................................................................................................................38 Results and Discussion ............................................................................................................................49 Conclusion................................................................................................................................................52

IV.Complication after liver transplant ……………………………………….. ........................................................54 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................54 Experimental............................................................................................................................................57 Results and Discussion ............................................................................................................................87 Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................96

Appendix

 A. Summary and future perspectives……………… ....................................................................................99

 B. Effect of different immunosuppressive regimes ...............................................................................103

 

REFERENCES .........................................................................................................................................121

 

Sample List of Tables

 LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                                                                                                                                     Page

1. Patient participants ………………………………………………………………… ......................................................38

 2. Caregiver participants…………………………………………………....................................................................42

3. Comparison of Hazard Analysis Techniques----Strengths and Weaknesses........................................43

 4. Selected Human Health Risk Assessment Techniques----Basic Information......................................53

5. Selected Health Risk Assessment Techniques----Strengths and Weaknesses ....................................54

6. Distinguishing Characteristics of Point Estimate and Probabilistic Human Health Risk Assessment Methods..................................................................................................................................................62

 7. Selected Human Health Risk Assessment and Risk Management Methodologies.............................65

8. Effect of immunosuppressive regime on T-cells………………….............................................................115

 9. Billiary complications after liver transplantation………………………………………......................................151

 

 

Sample List of Figures

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure                                                                                                                                                                                   Page

1. Anastomotic billiary strictures after liver transplantation…………………………………………………………………………………………………….........................................................12

2. Non-anastomotic billiary strictures after liver transplantation............................................................21

3. Radiological images..............................................................................................................................23

4. Stages of disease..................................................................................................................................39

5. Pathological images of liver transplant................................................................................................45

 

 

Sample of abstract

Challenges of medical response in emergency

Abstract

Background: Despite the importance of an effective health system response to various disasters leading to medical emergencies, relevant research is still in its infancy, especially in middle- and low-income countries.

Objective: This research work provides an overview of the status of disaster health management and challenges in Pakistan, with its aim to promote the effectiveness of the health response for reducing disaster-related mortality and morbidity.

Study Design: A scoping review method was used to address the recent progress of and challenges to disaster health management in Pakistan. Major health electronic databases of WHO, international disaster management society and Pakistan National/Army publications on disaster planning were searched to identify the core management problems that were relevant to the research aims.

Results: The review found that since 2006 considerable progress has been achieved in the health disaster response system in Pakistan. However, there remain challenges that hinder effective health disaster responses, including low standards of disaster-resistant infrastructure safety, the lack of specific disaster plans, poor emergency coordination between hospitals, lack of portable diagnostic equipment and underdeveloped triage skills, surge capacity, and psychological interventions. Additional challenges include the fragmentation of the emergency health service system, a lack of specific legislation for emergencies, disparities in the distribution of funding, and inadequate cost-effective considerations for disaster rescue.

Conclusions: One solution identified to address these challenges appears to be through corresponding policy strategies at multiple levels (e.g. community, hospital, and healthcare system level) and to provide regional leaders a foundation for building disaster/trauma systems/cells by acquiring the necessary concepts and educational tools.

KeywordsPakistan; disaster management; disaster response; health system; health policy; emergency situation; Medical aid challenges.

 

 

 

Spacing Template –

Chapter One, Page One

CHAPTER I

TITLE OF CHAPTER

First-Level Heading

 Begin each chapter at the top of a new page. Follow the chapter number and chapter title with the same amount of space (line and one-half, double space, or “two enters, with spacing set to double space”). Use this same amount of space to proceed first -and second- level headings, and before and after figures and tables.

Second-Level Heading

The number of levels and the placement of the headings and subheadings will vary, dependent on departmental requirements or preference. Headings may be centered, left justified, in bold face, italicized, indented or numbered. Use the same style throughout the document.

Be consistent with spacing and heading styles.

 (Begin the use of Arabic numbering on the first page of text. Continue consecutive Arabic page numbering throughout the remainder of the document, including the appendices and references)

 

Sample Chapter One,Page One

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Most children develop spatial concepts by looking at their environment and moving through their surroundings (Long & Hill, 2000). Children who are blind are unable to visually learn about their environment and are often delayed in the motor skills necessary to explore their environment (Adelson & Fraiberg, 1974; Jan, Sykanda, & Groenveld, 1990; Palazesi, 1986). Despite these delays, children who are blind are able to develop and use cognitive maps of spatial relationships though not necessary following the same pattern as children with typical sight (see literature review). First, key terms are defined and the impact of blindness on cognitive mapping is discussed. Next, a historical perspective on cognitive mapping in children with visual impairments is provided. Then, methods of measuring cognitive mapping are presented, and the importance of studying cognitive mapping abilities in children is discussed. Finally, research questions are presented.

 Definitions and Impact of Blindness on Cognitive Mapping

Definitions Cognitive mapping – a psychological process in which one “acquires, codes, stores, recalls, and decodes information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in his everyday, spatial environment” (Downs & Stea, 1973, p. 9).

 

INTENT TO GRADUATE

 

MS/ MPhil Thesis The student must submit one copy of the title page, with original signatures of the committee members and one copy of the abstract, with the original signature of the advisor.

Ph.D. Dissertation The doctoral student must submit one copy of the title page with original signatures of the committee members and one copy of the abstract, with the original signature of the advisor.

 The forms available for postgraduate degree (MP forms (MPhil)/ PD forms (PhD)) must also be completed and submitted accordingly (mentioned in PG regulations) to complete documentation process of thesis submission.

At the beginning of the semester in which a student will be completing a degree, he or she must fill out ‘’ Authors declaration, supervisor approval, plagiarism undertake ’’along with thesis and submit it to Academic directorate along with necessary documents.